The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is the generalised basis for all the national credit systems in the European Higher Education Area.
ECTS is a learner-centred system for credit accumulation and transfer based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes. It aims to facilitate planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities.
ENQA was established in 2000 to promote European co-operation in the field of quality assurance.
ENQA disseminates information, experiences and good practices in the field of quality assurance in higher education. It is the policy-making body of the European quality assurance agencies and has the status of observer in the Bologna Process.
Title of the so-called Bologna Declaration signed in 1999 by 31 ministers (or their representatives) from 29 countries. Currently, the European Higher Education Area covers 46 countries.
The Bologna Declaration contains an action plan aimed at creating a European Higher Education Area as a means to improve the international competitiveness and attractiveness of European higher education in the world and to ensure mobility and employability of students and graduates.
The EQF is a common European reference framework which links countries’ qualifications systems together, acting as a translation device to make qualifications more readable and understandable across different countries and systems in Europe. It has two principal aims: to promote citizens’ mobility between countries and to facilitate their lifelong learning. [...]
The EQF relates different countries’ national qualifications systems and frameworks together around a common European reference – its eight reference levels. These levels span the full scale of qualifications, from basic (Level 1, for example school leaving certificates) to advanced (Level 8, for example Doctorates) levels. As an instrument for the promotion of lifelong learning, the EQF encompasses all levels of qualifications acquired in general, vocational as well as academic education and training. Additionally, the framework addresses qualifications acquired in initial and continuing education and training.
The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states. The EU has 500 million inhabitants and generates more than 30% of the nominal gross world product.
The EU is best known as a single market area with freedom of movement for people, goods, services and capital.
In higher education, a generic term for most types of systematic processes to assess or value the quality of education.
As a programme cannot be reviewed or assessed until they have been in operation, new programmes or programme proposals are evaluated on its potential to offer the appropriate and expected quality level.
Ex-post assessment is generally used in its relation with ex-ante assessment and is generally referred to as 'assessment'.
Assessment is defined by INQAAHE as the evaluation of the quality itself. Assessment tries to collect data, information and evidence of the quality of the institution as a whole (institutional assessment) or its core activities separately (programme assessment). It goes beyond quality procedures (although it will be included) and tries to judge the quality of input, process and output.